1. New Plantations
– Technical visit and edaphic study: For this study we evaluate (depending on the area to be planted) the possibility of traveling to the estate. To do the study, we need to know the geographic location of the plot, its orientation, climate data, the previous crop that existed or still exists on the land, etc. Once we have this information, we must make a physical-chemical analysis of the soil to determine its suitability.
Numerous lands on which cereal crops were previously grown are suitable for planting truffles.
The physical-chemical analysis of a soil sample from the plot is important to clarify any possible doubts about the viability of the plantation. We offer this service at Forestales y Micológicos. ofrecemos este servicio.
– Quality mycorrhizated seedlings: A quality seedling is one of the pillars on which the good development of a plantation of these characteristics rests. For a seedling to be well-mycorrhizated it must have abundant mycorrhizas of the desired fungus and be free of contamination from other harmful fungi. After 20 years of working in the mycorrhization of black truffle, we have established a method that provides us with a quality mycorrhization of the entire batch; seedlings inoculated the previous spring present abundant mycorrhizas by early October.
We are backed by many years of highly professional experience in the production of seedlings mycorrhizated with truffle.
– Monitoring of plantations: We feel it is very important that our clients are provided with assessments at all times. This is why we will respond to any inquiries that may arise over the course of the plantation’s development.
Over the course of a plantation’s life, our clients approach us with many doubts and questions.
During the famous “desert crossing” prior to the productive start of the plantation, clients sometimes request root samples to be collected at young plantations (3-8 years) to have them examined in the laboratory and to know how the mycorrhization is developing.
2. Adult Plantations
– Analysis of the mycorrhizas in adult trees: The analysis consists of taking root samples of different trees, either by the client or by company employees, and then bringing the samples to our laboratory to be examined by microscope to thus learn the state of mycorrhization as well as the presence or absence of contaminants. A report is then written up for the client.
Upon examining the samples from the field in the laboratory we can learn part of the reality of that subterranean world where the truffle coexists with other living organisms, some of which are other fungi that compete for physical space.
– Inoculant substrate: This product is primarily made up of truffle spores and serves to inoculate seedlings that are not mycorrhizated or to reinforce those that are.
– Inoculant substrate with organic materials for holes (nests): This is the previous substrate but with added organic material, which is used by the truffle as food and is destined for the holes or nests. It serves to inoculate seedlings that, for some unknown reason, don’t produce yet, or to reinforce those that already produce.
A practice that is gaining ground because of its good results in plantations is to dig holes or nests in the brûlée and then to fill them partly with an organic mix of different ingredients, often including truffle spores. Later the holes are covered up and “troves of truffles” can then appear beginning two years later.
– Soil analysis: Truffle plantations need specific soils for a successful production. Prior to any planting, a physical-chemical analysis of the soil is important. To make such an analysis, a soil sample needs to be collected and sent to the laboratory. Later a report is drawn up with the results of the analysis and the recommended actions to take, if any, according to the type of soil.
Although a soil analysis isn’t always absolutely necessary, given that we can evaluate a terrain’s suitability for growing truffles through the visit of an expert, observing its location, situation, aspect, etc., still, in many situations it is nonetheless important to have the support of the analysis in order to make decisions.
– The study of mycorrhizas in field samples: During the famous “desert crossing” that all truffle plantations must pass through, doubts may arise over whether or not the fungus is adequately invading the newly formed root, given that all that is visible to us is the tree, which either grows healthily or not. To resolve this doubt, we can make an analysis of the mycorrhizas between the third and seventh year of the plantation.
An examination of the roots in the laboratory provides us with a lot of information about the situation of the truffle in the tree’s roots.
– Evaluation of the mycorrhizated seedling: Similarly to how we conduct internal controls to produce high-quality seedlings, we can also analyze seedlings that haven’t been produced by us to check the state of their mycorrhization and presence or not of contaminants.
It is reassuring to know the healthy state of the mycorrhization of the seedlings we use.
– Examination of the truffle batches: Truffles that can be used for the inoculation of seedlings, substrates for holes/nests, etc.
Whether truffles are used for the mycorrhization of seedlings or another purpose related to a plantation, it is essential to examine them one by one in the laboratory to be certain of the identity of the species.
View of mycorrhizated seedlings in the greenhouse.
Black truffle (Tuber melanosporum)
Mycorrhizated forest species::
Holm oak(Quercus ilex)
Portuguese or gall oak (Quercus faginea)
Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera)
Hazelnut tree(Corylus avellana)
Seedling of 1 or 2 years of age, in 450 cc forestry container. Certified seedling.
Ecology: Calcareous, mid-mountain zones, Mediterranean-continental climate, rainfall from 350to 800 liters/year, with summer storms.
|Holm oak mycorrhizated with black truffle.
(Quercus Ilex x Tuber melanosporum)
(Quercus rotumdifolia x tuber melanosporum)
|Oaks mycorrhizated with black truffle.
(Quercus Faginea x Tuber melanosporum)
|Hazelnut tree mycorrhizated with black truflle.
(Corylux avellna x Tuber melanosporum)
|Kermes oak mycorrhizated with black truffle
(Quercus Coccifera x Tuber melanosporum)
Summer truffle (Tuber aestivum )
Holm oak(Quercus ilex)
Portuguese or gall oak (Quercus faginea)
Ecology: A wider distribution than the black truffle, neutral to limy soils, Mediterranean-continental climate but also suitable for Atlantic climate, broad range of rainfall 300-1,000 liters/year.
Burgundy truffle (Tuber uncinatum)
Mycorrhizated forest species:
Scots pines(Pinus sylvestris)
Black pine(Pinus nigra)
Ecology: More demanding in terms of climate than the previous truffles, calcareous, mountain soils where the Scots pine and black pine grow well. (Photo 16)
Inocula and Substrates
Inoculant substrate (A) : Truffle spores and ingredients that favor their germination, mixed with vermiculite and perlite.
Complete substrate for holes/nests (B) : Using substrate A as a base, we add organic for direct use in holes or nests.
Organic materials and minerals to complete substrate B
A) 70-liters sacks (earthworm humus, composed bark and leonardite)
C) Peat and coconut fiber
D) Perlite and vermiculite
Depending on the locations, the use of the protectors aids the rooting of the young seedling. The protectors can remain in place in the field for one or two years.